Solar energy is the main source of life on Earth : directs the biophysical and geophysical cycles and chemicals that sustain life on the planet, the cycles of oxygen, water, carbon and climate.
The Sun provides us food through photosynthesis, and as the sun’s energy that induces the movement of wind and water and plant growth.
The energy sun is the source of most renewable energy sources, both wind energy, hydropower, biomass, and the waves and currents, as solar energy itself. Solar energy can take advantage passively (passive solar energy), without the use of any device or intermediate system, by appropriate sitting, design and orientation of buildings, using the physicochemical properties of materials and architectural elements correctly the same: insulation, types of roofs, protections, etc.
By applying criteria of bioclimatic architecture can significantly reduce or even eliminate the need for air condition (heat and cool) buildings and the need to enlighten during the day.
These architectural practices contrast with the trend observed in Spain for years to install air conditioning equipment (air conditioning) that consume a lot of energy. You can also actively use (active solar energy), capturing solar thermal energy (heat) or generating electricity.
The thermal use of solar energy for water heating (including heating) is possible thanks to water solar collectors; installation of 4 m2 of collectors and 300 liters of hot water accumulation gives a whole family (depending on the locality, consumption habits, etc.), saving more than half a ton of CO2 a year and costs around 2,100 euros without include subsidies; if we include the price of solar equipment may be worth 1,500 euros.
Even expanding the area of solar collectors can obtain energy for heating, distributing floors. There are also air solar collectors (heating), solar cookers, solar desalination plants and other thermal applications.
In addition, you can generate electricity from solar thermal, by calling the central tower or by trough collectors parabolic; in these facilities a fluid that transports heat and generates electricity through a turbine and a generator, or a motor is driven by a parabolic concentrator (report “Solar Thermal Power 2020.
Firm steps against climate change” is heated. Greenpeace 2004) and of course, the use of photovoltaic cells for electrical harnessing solar energy.
Solar energy, energy, solar what are the advantages of photovoltaic solar energy facilities?
Photovoltaic technology directly converts the radiation from the sun into electricity. The energy that gives us the sun is clean, renewable and so abundant that the amount received by the Earth in 30 minutes is equivalent to all the electricity consumed by humanity in one year.
An installation of photovoltaic technology is characterized by its simplicity, silence, long life, require little maintenance, high reliability. The recovery of energy consumption made in the manufacture of panels pays off in 2-3 years of operation and does not damage the environment. Unlike fossil fuels and nuclear energy, photovoltaic energy does not pollute. However, no source of energy is absolutely safe.
In the case of photovoltaic, although its use does not cause any impact, making the cells requires the use of toxic elements, so that manufacturers must reduce the consumption of these compounds, reuse and recycling whenever possible, and avoid the uncontrolled dumping of waste.
Despite this, considering the entire life cycle of photovoltaic solar technology (from extraction of raw materials to the end of its useful life) the impact on nature is incomparably smaller technologies based on fossil or nuclear fuels. On the other hand, photovoltaic technology has the added value of creating jobs and employs local resources, reducing dependence on foreign energy, and use an inexhaustible source of energy.
The sun (solar energy) an installation of photovoltaic solar energy can be placed almost anywhere and facilities of different sizes.
It is a renewable technology easily installed electricity generation and the production can be distributed directly at the point of consumption of our towns and cities, where and when most of the country’s electricity is consumed. Thus, any building can become a small electricity generating plant.
Although there are significant regional and seasonal differences, Spain received on average sunstroke 1,600 kWh / m2-year; ranking it along with Portugal, at the head of Europe. In fact, in 1990 it was estimated huge potential in solar photovoltaic roofs in Spain close to 32,000 MWp that could help us save between 17.5 and 50 million tons of CO2.
The potential obviously, has increased since the expansion of the real estate sector has grown steadily since 1990. It is clear that this is merely indicative and could be even more if the right political decisions are taken.
Situation in Spain
The Development Plan of Renewable Energies (RFLP) fixed for 2010 in Spain must have a solar PV power installed capacity of 143.7 MWp of which 115 MWp must be connected to the grid. However, according to the Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDAE) during 2003 they were installed 5.5 MW connected to the grid.
The total solar energy photovoltaic installed in Spain in late 2003, including grid-connected and isolated network, is 27 MW. At the current rate, which is essentially marked by the financial support is given, we will stay far to be able to meet this goal.
It is therefore necessary to move towards a similar German model, with certain administrative, fiscal and financing facilities so that not only the target of 144 MW is reached, it can take 1,000 MW by 2010.
The German model is subject of many “healthy envy” for the excellent results you are getting. Despite having a lower radiation, he managed to finish in June 2003 the “100,000 solar roofs”, launched in 1999 by installing 300 MW of solar power, while in Spain we have a target of 144 MW by 2010.
Not only are leaders in installation, but also have become the largest producer of panels in Europe moving to Spain from that position.
If we ignore aid through grants, which do not always perceive and represent great uncertainty, or aid in financing and only look at the compensation for energy sold today repayment of investment in Spain are 20 years. For installations over 100 kW, these terms grow even bigger, even though the facility has a large R & D component important to help them both to receive European aid to achieve the necessary technological development.
The system Current salary is guaranteed for 25 years from the commissioning of the facility, although this remuneration will be reviewed when fitted 150 MW. Source Greenpeace solar energy.